Books & Articles

In this section you can find a list of publications addressing the context of LLL policies for young adults in the view of the project' research.


Xavier Rambla (2018): The politics of early school leaving: how do the European Union and the Spanish educational authorities 'frame' the policy and formulate a 'theory of change', Journal of European Integration, 40:1, 83-97.

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The article analyses the interaction between the European Commission and a sample of educational authorities in Spain with regard to the policy against early school leaving. Although this member state scores the highest proportion of early school leavers, apparently it is not adopting some key recommendations issued by the Commission. In fact, while educational policy studies regret this 'resistance', studies on EU policies suggest that the EU and the states normally negotiate the ambition and the evaluation of policies in complex ways. In this vein, the article draws on a method of discourse analysis to observe to what extent these educational authorities 'frame' the policy in the same terms and share a similar rationale or 'theory of change'. In brief, the findings point out that the EU, the Government of Spain and two significant regional governments retrieve a similar 'frame' but do not agree regarding the 'theory of change'.


Marcelo Parreira do Amaral & Jozef Zelinka (2019): Lifelong learning policies shaping the life courses of young adults. An interpretative analysis of orientations, objectives and solutions, Comparative Education, DOI: 10.1080/03050068.2019.1619333


In the following article, we share our findings from the comparative analyses of 54 lifelong learning policy measures implemented in nine European countries, with a particular focus on their orientations, objectives, and solutions devised. Informed by the theoretical framework of Interpretive Policy Analysis (IPA), we have further reasoned on the impacts and unintended effects on young adults' life course transitions, especially those in vulnerable positions, as well as on the hidden ambivalences and incompatibilities in the objectives and orientations of lifelong learning policies. The article provides, first, a brief discussion of the conceptual and methodological choices made. Second, it gives an overview of the design and data basis of our research. In the third section, we present and discuss the central findings from our interpretive analyses, and we finally conclude with a discussion on current trends in lifelong learning policymaking and on their impact on young adults' transitions.


Life course transitions; LLL policies; Europe; vulnerability; interpretive policy analysis; cultural political economy; young adults